Что будет после Томоса

Украинская церковь не первая, кто хочет отделиться от РПЦ. Как это получилось у Эстонии.

Правообладатель иллюстрации Getty Images Image caption Собор Александра Невского был построен в начале XX века на Вышгороде в Таллинне как символ присутствия православной русской империи. Московская и Константинопольская православные патриархии, жестко конфликтующие сейчас по вопросу об автокефалии Украины, в недавнем прошлом уже делили православие в новой стране — Эстонии. Конфликт был долгим и острым, но благополучно разрешился.

Суть конфликта состояла в том, что после распада СССР в Эстонию вернулась сохранившаяся в изгнании православная церковь Константинопольского патриархата — и ее власти Эстонии сразу зарегистрировали, а церковь Московского патриархата долгое время регистрировать отказывались.

Как и в нынешнем случае с автокефалией украинского православия, так и в случае с Эстонией причины и смысл коллизии одни и те же: распад империи и создание независимой от Москвы церкви в независимом от Москвы государстве.

Разница — в размерах Украины и Эстонии, в том, что в Эстонии православие — не главная конфессия, а также в том, что в эстонском случае за всеми спорами явственно проглядывал и даже выходил на первый план имущественный интерес.

В течение почти 10 лет политики России и Эстонии говорили о юридических аспектах, а имели в виду сохранение или разрыв связей с империей. Иерархи в то же время толковали о канонах и духовной связи, а имели в виду раздел имущества.

Возвращение изгнанников

В канонической юрисдикции Константинопольского патриархата находится Эстонская апостольская православная церковь (ЭАПЦ). Автономию этой церкви дал в 1920 году, в условиях большевистского террора, патриарх Московский Тихон. В 1923 году Константинополь принял ЭАПЦ под свое крыло.

В 1940 году Советский Союз оккупировал Эстонию и вскоре ликвидировал автономию местной православной церкви, вновь подчинив ее Московской патриархии. Часть священников, уцелевших после расстрелов и депортаций, в 1944 году, перед возвращением советских войск, бежала и сохранила ЭАПЦ в изгнании, в Стокгольме.

И вот с распадом Советского Союза эта церковь вернулась во вновь независимую Эстонию.

Чужие среди своих икон

МВД Эстонии в 1993 году официально зарегистрировало ЭАПЦ, и она тут же по принципу реституции — восстановления имущественных и прочих прав, действовавших в межвоенной Эстонской Республике, — оказалась собственницей всего имущества православной церкви в стране.

«Московская» часть церкви в том же 1993 году была преобразована из митрополии в автономную Эстонскую православную церковь.

Церковь Святой Екатерины (Пярну)

В результате раздела в Эстонии оказалось 60 приходов ЭАПЦ и 31 приход ЭПЦ МП. фото: Jaakko Avikainen/TASS

Однако МВД отказалось ее регистрировать, сославшись на то, что ее название слишком похоже на название ЭАПЦ и она тем самым претендует на права, принадлежащие ЭАПЦ. В результате «московские» священники и прихожане вдруг оказались вроде как чужими в церквях, которые они за годы советской власти привыкли считать своими.

Шумная склока

Иерархи «московской» православной церкви Эстонии и самой РПЦ обвинили ЭАПЦ в узурпаторстве, а эстонские власти — во вмешательстве в церковные дела. МИД России тогда регулярно выступал с заявлениями о «грубом вмешательстве эстонского руководства в церковную жизнь, исходя из политических соображений» и о попрании прав русскоязычных верующих.

патриарх Константинопольский Варфоломей I

25 лет назад патриарх Варфоломей принял под свою каноническую юрисдикцию эстонскую церковь. Теперь он же решает судьбу украинской церкви. Фото: AFP

Эстонское правительство отвечало, что действует по закону и призывает «московскую» церковь к тому же.

МВД Эстонии, конечно, не было беспристрастно в этом споре: новой Эстонии была нужна независимая от Москвы православная церковь. Но сотрудники министерства ссылались на букву закона — и эта буква была за них.

«На штыках Советской армии»

В 1996 году Варфоломей I — патриарх Константинопольский, называемый также Вселенским, — принял ЭАПЦ под свою каноническую юрисдикцию — и вот тут внутриправославный раздрай дошел до высшей точки.

Особый оттенок всему этому конфликту придавало то, что патриархом Московским и всея Руси в то время был Алексий II (Ридигер) — потомок остзейских немцев, вся жизнь которого до интронизации в 1990 году была связана с Эстонией.

Священный синод РПЦ под председательством Алексия в феврале 1993 года постановил «приостановить каноническое и евхаристическое общение с Константинопольским Патриархатом […], а также прекратить поминовение Константинопольского патриарха по диптиху предстоятелей поместных православных церквей».

Сейчас РПЦ сделала то же самое в связи с украинским конфликтом.

патриарха Московский и всея Руси Алексий II

Для патриарха Московского Алексия II эстонский конфликт имел личное измерение: он родился в Таллинне и почти всю жизнь до избрания патриархом служил в Эстонии. Фото: AFP

В ответ Вселенский патриарх — тот самый Варфоломей, что сейчас решает судьбу украинской церкви, — выступил с необычайно резкой отповедью РПЦ и лично Алексию.

«Пресвятейшая Российская Церковь не права, обвиняя Вселенский Патриархат во вмешательстве во внутренние дела Российской Церкви и в нарушении святых канонов. Напротив. Российский Патриархат во все эти годы вторгался в страны, находящиеся под духовной юрисдикцией Вселенского Патриархата, а именно в Эстонии, Венгрии и других странах, и делал это всегда с помощью вооруженной силы Советской Армии. Российская Церковь в то время не стремилась получить мнения Вселенского Патриархата и не показывала никакого уважения к нему. Аннексия Православной Церкви Эстонии в пользу Пресвятой Российской Церкви произошла произвольно и неканонически», — заявил Варфоломей (цитата по переводу послания, опубликованному известным российским богословом отцом Андреем Кураевым).

Поругались и договорились

Собор Александра Невского, Таллинн

Полтора десятка храмов и церковных зданий оп итогам раздела были переданы в пользование ЭПЦ МП сроком на 50 лет. Фото: Pekka Sakki/TASS

Несколько лет стороны обменивались резкими заявляениями, но в итоге выпустили пар и договорились.

Две православные церкви Эстонии при посредничестве министерства внутренних дел, а затем делегации Московского и Константинопольского патриархатов на серии встреч в Цюрихе, Женеве, Вене и Берлине в 1996-2001 годах годах пришли к компромиссному соглашению.

Об имуществе стороны договорились, в самых общих чертах, следующим образом: ЭАПЦ отказалась от спорных объектов недвижимости — 14 храмов и еще четырех зданий — в пользу государства, а то передало их в пользование сроком на 50 лет ЭПЦ, при этом по условиям пользования права ЭПЦ МП в отношении этой недвижимости мало чем отличаются от прав собственника.

ЭПЦ официально назвалась Эстонской православной церковью Московского патриархата и в 2002 году была наконец зарегистрирована в МВД.

Еще до достижения этого соглашения приходы в соответствии с православными традициями сами определились, входят они в «константинопольскую» или же «московскую» церковь.

В результате раздела в Эстонии оказалось 60 приходов ЭАПЦ и 31 приход ЭПЦ МП. При этом по числу прихожан «московские» приходы оказались в разы больше «константинопольских»: примерно 85% из 180 тысяч православных Эстонии, в основном русскоязычных жителей страны, ходят в «московские» церкви.

В 2003 году Алексий II совершил официальный визит на родину, и этот визит стал символом если не полного примирения, то окончания «активной фазы» конфликта.

Светская страна

Было бы неправильно описывать конфликт вокруг эстонского православия как чисто этнический: «константинопольская», независимая церковь эстонцев против «промосковской» церкви русских.

Это не совсем так: и в ЭАПЦ с самого начала были русские священники и прихожане, и в ЭПЦ МП были и есть эстонцы.

Вообще же Эстония — во-первых, традиционно лютеранская страна, а во-вторых, это одна из самых нерелигиозных стран в мире.

По данным переписи 2011 года, лишь 19,5% эстонцев и около половины эстонских русских связывают себя с какой-либо религией.

В 2010 году Совет церквей Эстонии заказал большое социологическое исследование о роли религии в обществе, и социологи, кроме прочего, выяснили, что всего лишь около 16% жителей страны считают себя членами какого-либо прихода или религиозной общины.

Юри Вендик, опубликовано на сайте ВВС

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