Ігор Мізрах: Чи приведуть дороги України до ЄС?

Перший сніг приніс Україні чимало халеп. Тільки в столиці за 14 листопада, з ранку, трапилося більш ніж 50 аварій, через зимові опади.

З таких події і постає питання, що ж ми робимо не так? В чому проблема українських автострад та доріг? Країна, де зими сніжні, але начебто до снігу ніхто не готується.

Існує декілька хитрощів при будівництві доріг , які допомагають максимально обійти такі питання, як накопичення опадів на околицях, через що часто виникають затори на дорогах, дтп, тощо.

В чому ж різниця між нашими дорогами та дорогами, побудованими за кордоном?

Фінляндія

Фінляндія – одна з тих країн, чиї дороги  вважаються найкращими в світі. Фінському клімату не позаздриш, адже непогода є типовою для Фінляндії і все ж фіни винаходять добрячі способи аби будувати чудові дороги. На сьогоднішній день фіни будують дороги навіть в тих місцях, де раніше ніхто і не думав будувати через нестійкість землі. Однак нинішні розробки в сфері будівництва доріг дозволили вирішити ці негаразди. Для того, щоб стабілізувати ґрунт, вони виробляють спеціальну підкладку під асфальт з торфу або глини, у яку додаються особливі речовини, що зміцнюють підкладку. Втім, майстри з Фінляндії тримають у відмінному стані навіть звичайні ґрунтові дороги. Тож секрет фінських доріг не такий вже й недосяжний для українців, але чи знає наш брат про такі примудрощі?

Как делают дороги в разных странах Авто, Дорога, Строительство, Длиннопост

Китай

Китайські дороги теж відрізняються гарною якістю і міцністю. Компанії, які займаються будівництвом китайських доріг дають гарантії на придатність своїх доріг від 20 до 25 років. Погодьтесь непоганий термін!

Так як Китай розвивається шаленими темпами, до питання будівництва доріг відносяться дуже серйозно. Всі проекти опрацьовуються до найменших дрібниць. А про затримку будівництва та новаторства навіть не йдеться, використовується все найліпше та найновіше.

Как делают дороги в разных странах Авто, Дорога, Строительство, Длиннопост

Також вражає швидкість, із якою китайці будують дороги таких високих стандартів. За один рік в Китаї будується близько 30 тисяч кілометрів автострад.

Німеччина

Німецькі дороги вважаються світовим лідером, ідеалом усіх доріг по всьому світу. Цікавий факт – нещодавно виповнилося 80 років першому автобану, побудованому в Німеччині. Дивно, але велика частина доріг будувалася ще за часів Другої світової війни, яка звичайно була розрахована на танки. Тому сучасні машини – невелика проблема для таких доріг. Тож запорукою довго строковості іноді є міцність.

Как делают дороги в разных странах Авто, Дорога, Строительство, Длиннопост

Основна особливість доріг в Німеччині, як і у Фінляндії, дуже велика підкладка під асфальт, яка налічує кілька шарів різних матеріалів. І тільки після укладання цієї подушки дорога заливається асфальтом або бетоном. До речі, товщина подушки може становити цілих 2 метри. На відміну від китайців, німці не поспішають, для них будування доріг це копіткий і неспішний процес.

США

У США, незважаючи на те, що дороги з бетону забирають багато часу – це найпоширеніший вид прокладання автострад. Вони можуть залишатися без обслуговування десятки років. Але існує один невід’ємний мінус бетонних доріг – якщо дорога постраждала, її ремонт буде дорогим і досить проблематичним.

Підготовка до будівництва дорожнього полотна займає левову частку всього процесу укладання дороги. Під дорогу риється яма глибиною в метр, засипається різними матеріалами, які забезпечують майбутньої дорозі міцність і пружність.

Как делают дороги в разных странах Авто, Дорога, Строительство, Длиннопост

Ситуацію з українськими дорогами коментує наш експерт Ігор Мізрах: «Стан українських доріг навряд чи можна назвати ідеальним або хоча б близьким до норм Європи. У Європі стан доріг дуже добрий і це є однією з умов входу до ЄС. Наразі в Україні лише 65% українських доріг знаходяться у задовільному стані, 35% у поганому і це лише за офіційними даними. Але що означає «задовільний»? Точно не за європейськими нормами. На мою думку нам є чому повчитися у наших європейських сусідів, та хоча б перейняти якийсь бюджетний стандарт виконання будівництва, який би зарадив нашим проблемам на дорогах та автострадах вже сьогодні».

Ігор Мізрах

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