Игорь Мизрах: Пенсионный возраст или старость приходит ко всем

Старость приходит ко всем, но к сожалению задумываться о ней многие начинают по факту. В разных странах по разному относятся к этому природному явлению, это касается и обычаев и пенсионных выплат и самого термина «пенсионный возраст». Как же обстоят дела с пенсионным возрастом в мире?

Европа

В Великобритании пенсионный возраст для мужчин и женщин одинаковый  – 65 лет. Для женщин подобное является нововведением с 2016 года, когда пенсионный возраст женщин –  60 лет, подняли на равные с мужским – 65 лет. Так же прогнозируется, что в 2019-2020 годах планка будет расти до 66 лет, а в 2026-2028 годах и вовсе дойдёт до  67 лет.

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В Германии, на основе закона принятого в 2007 году, проходит поэтапное повышение пенсионного возраста с 65 лет (как для мужчин, так и для женщин) до 67 лет. Процесс должен завершится в 2029 году.

В Италии право на досрочный выход на пенсию имеют граждане с 41-летним трудовым стажем. До реформы, которую итальянцы проводят с 2007 года,  мужчины выходили на пенсию в 65 лет, а женщины в зависимости от сектора занятости – в 60-65 лет.

Во Франции в 2017 году возраст выхода французов на пенсию был увеличен с 60 до 62,5 лет. Исключение составляют люди, начавшие трудовую деятельность в 18 лет, пострадавшие от несчастных случаев на производстве и получившие инвалидность, участники войны, а также имеющие стаж не менее 41 года, – они могут выйти на пенсию в 60 лет.

Америка

В США для определения пенсионного возраста важна дата рождения.  Так, для людей, родившихся до 1960 года (и мужчины, и женщины), пенсионный возраст наступает в 66 лет, для людей, рожденных в 1960 году и позже, это 67 лет. На досрочную пенсию американцы могут выходить начиная с 62 лет, но при этом они теряют часть выплат.

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В Аргентине пенсионный возраст составляет 65 лет для мужчин и 60 лет для женщин. В Колумбии выйти на пенсию по возрасту могут мужчины по достижении 62 лет, женщины – в 57 лет. В Чили пенсионный возраст для мужчин составляет 65 лет, для женщин – 60.

Азия

В Китае система пенсионного обеспечения охватывает лишь государственных служащих и лица, занятые в промышленности. Так, раньше мужчины выходили на пенсию в 60 лет, женщины в 55 лет. Обычно, если женщина занимается физическим трудом, то выходит на пенсию в возрасте  50 лет, те, что работают в административной сфере – в 55 лет. Для получения пенсии необходимо иметь рабочий стаж в 15 лет. Однако Китай запланировал понижение пенсионного возраста на 5 лет, как для мужчин, так и для женщин, в связи с проведенным социальными исследованиями. Данные исследования доказали, что пожилые люди перегружены, что приводит к стрессу и прочим нехорошим последствиям, болезням и пр. Исходя из этих данных решили, что мужчины будут выходить на пенсию в 55 лет, а женщины в 50 лет, а при тяжелом труде в 45 лет.

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В Японии до 2000 года пенсия начислялась с 60 лет. С 2001 года этот возрастной порог постепенно увеличивался и в 2013 году достиг 65 лет (для мужчин и женщин). Для продолжающих работать после 65 лет размер пенсии ежегодно увеличивается.

Украина

«В Украине самым слабым звеном социального общества остаются пенсионеры, а так же вечные разговоры о возрастном цензе выхода на пенсию. Жаль, что мы уподобляемся в таких решениях примерам «имперских властелинов», которые не ценят не то, что человека, а даже его практически жизненную отдачу на поддержание силы и развитие государства. Почему-то именно пенсионеры, те, кто выходят на пенсию в Украине, попадают в разряд вечно должных, стоящих с протянутой рукой, не смотря на выплачиваемые налоги в течении всего трудового стажа. Правители Многомиллионных стран, которые понимают, что не только старость не за горами, а у них она в принципе обеспечена, осознают, что дань уважения к старости и к тем, кто трудился на благо родины, не должно выглядеть посмешищем для соседей, а должно быть примером для наследования. Вот, к примеру, недавнее государственное решение Китая, почему бы не взять за основу?» – подчёркивает Игорь Мизрах.

Когда Украина входила в состав СССР, пенсии назначались мужчинам с 60 лет и женщинам с 55 лет. При этом стаж первых должен был составлять 25 лет, а вторых — 20 лет.

После обретения Независимости в 1992 году  пенсионный возраст существенно не менялся до 2011 года, когда в стране увеличили возраст выхода на пенсию женщин с 55 до 60 лет. Также в том же году был повышен на 10 лет страховой стаж, необходимый для получения пенсии.

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Начиная с 1 января  2019 года на пенсию в 60 лет смогут выйти только те украинцы, которые имеют не менее полных 26 лет стажа. Это предусмотрено пенсионной реформой.

60-летние украинцы, которые в 2019-м будут иметь от 16 до 25 лет стажа, смогут позволить себе “заслуженный отдых” в 63 года. Те, у кого наберется менее 16 лет стажа, смогут выйти на пенсию только в 65 лет.

Игорь Мизрах эксклюзивно для журнала РЕЙТИНГ

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