Росія нарощує кількість бойових кораблів в Азовському морі

Росія нарощує кількість бойових катерів і кораблів в Азовському морі та в районі Керченської протоки. Їх перекидають з віддалених вод, за тисячі кілометрів – з Каспію і навіть з Баренцового моря з півночі Росії. Угруповання в районі Азова активно підсилюють, починаючи з весни цього року. Що вже перекинули ближче до України і до чого це може привести? Розбиралися журналісти спеціального проекту Радіо Свобода «Донбас.Реалії».

Ризиковані маневри катерів російських прикордонників в Азовському морі. Понад сім сотень випадків перевірок кораблів, що прямували до українських портів. Поява військових катерів ВМС України в акваторії. Напруга в Азовському морі зростала місяцями і дійшла до відкритої агресії з боку Росії. Російських катерів і кораблів тут усе більше, відповідно, градус напруги зростає теж.

«Кораблі перекидаються навіть з Баренцового моря, тобто це означає, що обстановка в Баренцовому морі, з точки зору Москви, простіша. Незважаючи на те, що нещодавно там пройшли найбільші навчання НАТО за участю авіаносця, вперше за довгі роки. Проте Росія вважає, що в Азовському морі все може бути крутіше. Днями туди увійшов тральщик «Віце-адмірал Захар’їн», що, до речі кажучи, саме по собі дуже симптоматично, тому що поява тральщика в Азовському морі означає, що Росія допускає появу мінної небезпеки в Азовському морі», – розповідає російський військовий оглядач, капітан 1-го рангу запасу Сергій Іщенко.

За даними українських прикордонників, у жовтні в Азовському морі було 120 кораблів і катерів прикордонної служби ФСБ Росії. Фактично кожен третій має озброєння. Додатково кораблі можуть оперативно перекинути з Чорного моря і угруповання стане ще потужнішим.

«Тільки в останній місяць перед закриттям річкової навігації ми зафіксували 7 військових кораблів, великих прикордонних кораблів, які перекинуті до Азовського моря», – каже голова наглядової ради громадської організації «Майдан закордонних справ» Андрій Клименко.

Російські бойові кораблі на сторожі Керченської протоки

До прикладу, нещодавно до району Азовського моря і Керченської протоки росіяни перекинули сторожові кораблі «Керч», «Сиктивкар», «Кизляр» і «Балаклава». Всі однотипні. Із озброєння: скорострільна шестиствольна 30-міліметрова і 76-міліметрова гармати та кулемети. В екіпажу – переносні зенітно-ракетні комплекси. В районі Керченського мосту чергують прикордонні сторожові кораблі проекту «Мисливець» – з майданчиком для гелікоптера, озброєні 30-міліметровою артилерійською установкою і кулеметами. В акваторії моря курсують катери проекту «Соболь» і «Мангуст».

Російський прикордонний сторожовий корабель проекту «Мисливець»

«Росія в Темрюку та в Таганрозі має по загону кораблів берегової охорони. В цілому це близько, я не володію якимись закритими даними, я за відкритими джерелами можу сказати, – це близько 30 прикордонних кораблів і катерів, які знаходяться там. Скільки з них в строю, скільки зараз ремонтуються, скільки не можуть вийти в море, я не знаю», – каже російський військовий оглядач, капітан 1-го рангу запасу Сергій Іщенко.

Експерти: перевага Росії в акваторії тотальна

В Москві мілітаризацію акваторії виправдовували інцидентом із риболовецьким судном «Норд» – навесні його затримали українські прикордонники. В Україні нагнітання сил називають спробою перетворити Азов на внутрішнє море Росії.

«Вони перекидаються для того, щоби Україна не могла абсолютно спокійно здійснювати свої комунікації, не могла здійснювати навігацію, не могла здійснювати свою економічну діяльність в Азовському морі», – переконаний заступник директора Центру дослідження армії, конверсії та роззброєння Михайло Самусь.

Окрім двох бронекатерів ВМС із 30-міліметровими гарматами, зараз з українського боку Азовського моря залишаються два десятки катерів Державної прикордонної служби України. Озброєні, щоправда, не всі. Найбільший калібр – 12,7 міліметра.

Перевага Росії в акваторії тотальна, Україні в будь-якому випадку необхідно збільшувати чисельність своїх Військово-морських сил, упевнені військові експерти. До прикладу, за рахунок пришвидшеної передачі катерів «Айленд» і домовленості про збільшення їх кількості. Є і більш радикальні заходи.

«Це було раніше й існує в будь-яких країнах – морською мовою – мобілізація засобів водного транспорту. До речі, ухвалений закон може дозволити це зробити. Це збільшить патрулювання, це збільшить присутність у важливих районах і це механізми стримування», – зауважує засновник громадської організації «Міжнародний центр стратегій безпеки і оборони» Ігор Кабаненко.

Україна відповідає з суші​

На нагнітання Росією ситуації на морі українська армія відповідає усе більше з берега. Фактично щотижня на півдні Операції об’єднаних сил відбуваються навчання. На минулому тижні відбивали ймовірну атаку з повітря.

«Навколо міста Маріуполь є райони протиповітряної оборони, де застосовуються засоби з дальністю ураження за 75 кілометрів. Система протиповітряної оборони побудована таким чином, що цього достатньо, аби унеможливити напади з повітря як на порт Маріуполя, так і на саме місто Маріуполь, а також на приморський напрямок», – розповідає командувач Операцією об’єднаних сил Сергій Наєв.

Деякі експерти вважають, що Азовське узбережжя, яке контролює Україна, теж може стати ціллю у випадку агресії з боку Росії. Українська армія відпрацьовує цей сценарій уже кілька місяців. Майже 100 років тому тут уже висаджувався десант. Тоді білогвардійці атакували Червону армію.

«Під час цих десантів було захоплено Маріуполь, Бердянськ, Генічеськ. Військова історія цього регіону показує, що це дуже ефективний спосіб – морський десант. Ідею «Новоросії» Путін не відкинув. Але велика вірогідність того, що вона буде реалізовуватися не на суші», – припускає голова наглядової ради громадської організації «Майдан закордонних справ» Андрій Клименко.

Активно проводячи навчання, Україна передовсім сподівається, що за агресію у Керченській протоці Росію покарає міжнародне співтовариство. Командувач ВМС просить про закриття «Босфору», а українська влада очікує нових санкцій для Росії, оголосивши воєнний стан у десяти регіонах країни.

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