Железорудный закон олигархии

Государственная фискальная служба в упор не замечает схем по занижению цены экспортируемого из Украины железорудного сырья на более чем полмиллиарда долларов в год.

Об этом свидетельствуют результаты исследования “Перемещение прибыли при экспорте железной руды из Украины”, инициированного независимыми профсоюзами Криворожья при поддержке фракции зеленых и объединенных левых Европарламента.

В мае 2017 года по шахтам Кривбасса прокатилась волна забастовок. Работники Криворожского железорудного комбината, “Евраз Сухая Балка” и “АрселорМиттал Кривой Рог” потребовали от владельцев предприятий поднять заработную плату в долларовом эквиваленте до уровня 2013 года (1000 долларов) и соблюдать нормальные условия труда (в 2014 году правительство Яценюка отменило проверки бизнеса, в том числе со стороны Гостехнадзора, из-за чего выросло количество несчастных случаев на производстве).

Горняки отказывались подниматься на поверхность и в результате администрация шахт была вынуждена спускаться в шахты и вести переговоры под землей. Результатом забастовок стали подписанные топ-менеджерами шахт соглашения о повышении зарплат в два-три этапа. Однако, в итоге эти обещания не были выполнены. Трудовые коллективы стали убеждать в том, что, во-первых, директора шахт не имели полномочий подписывать какие-либо соглашения, а во-вторых, если зарплаты будут подняты до уровня, который требовали забастовщики, то предприятия “пойдут по миру”. В доказательство экономисты и юристы олигархических холдингов, которые контролируют криворожские шахты, демонстрировали экспортные контракты на железорудное сырье.

Профсоюзные активисты были неприятно удивлены озвученными ценами экспортных поставок. Они явно противоречили как текущей конъюнктуре на мировом рынке железной руды, так и здравому смыслу. Ведь из 7 украинских миллиардеров из списка Forbes шестеро в разное время владели или продолжают владеть ГОКами и сделали на этом немалую часть своего нынешнего состояния: Ахметов, Новинский, Жеваго, Пинчук, Коломойский и Боголюбов.

В частности, трое последних судились в Лондоне по поводу Криворожского железорудного комбината. Зять Леонида Кучмы требовал от совладельцев группы “Приват” компенсации в размере 2 млрд долларов за непереданный ему по итогам приватизации в 2003 году пакет (93%) акций КЖРК. Эта сумма более чем в 50 раз превышает среднегодовой размер чистой прибыли Криворожского железорудного комбината. После того, как Коломойский и Боголюбов удовлетворили требования Пинчука и отдали ему свою лондонскую недвижимость на сопоставимую сумму, стало очевидно, что показатель официальной прибыли КЖРК не соответствует реальной рентабельности комбината.

Поэтому криворожские профсоюзы решили обратиться к специалистам с вопросом, как же и по каким ценам на самом деле экспортируется украинское железорудное сырье. Темой заинтересовались ГО “Социальный рух” и Центр социальных и трудовых исследований. Вокруг них постепенно сформировалась международная группа ученых, специализирующаяся как на статистических методах анализа данных, так и на вопросах международного налогообложения корпораций.

Дополнительную актуальность исследованию придавало то, что в экономике Украины ЖРС занимает положение в чем-то схожее с ролью углеводородов в России. По запасам железной руды Украина занимает третье место в мире, а по размерам ее экспорта входит в первую “пятерку”.

На основании аналитической базы американской Import Genius были проанализированы данные о каждой конкретной поставке украинского железорудного сырья на внешний рынок. Сравнивались данные украинской таможенной статистики (то есть по какой цене сырье уходило из страны) и текущие котировки Platts. В исследовании были учтены цены транспортировки в Китай и Восточную Европу (основные рынки ЖРС из Украины), а также различия в ценах в зависимости от того идет ли речь об окатышах или концентрате, и с каким содержанием железа. Отслежены цепочки посредников, связанных с владельцами украинских ГОКов.

Выяснилось, что за период с 2015 по 2017 год львиная доля железорудного сырья из Украины была продана через 11 зарубежных посредников. Размер “дисконта” по отношению к спотовым котировкам мирового рынка колебался от 21% по окатышам до почти 29% по неагломерированной руде с содержанием железа 62%. В итоге, за эти три года общий размер занижения цен при экспорте украинского ЖРС составил 1,56 млрд долларов.

По сути, здесь мы имеем дело с транфертным ценнобразованием, точнее с одним из его вариантов, когда за счет занижения цен при вывозе продукции прибыль выводится из страны-экспортера в низконалоговые юрисдикции (например, такие как Швейцария или Люксембург, которые в соответствии с украинским законодательством не относятся к числу офшорных юрисдикций, хотя по факту являются таковыми).

Одним из вопросов, на который должно было ответить “Перемещение прибыли при экспорте железной руды из Украины”, заключался в том, существует ли в Украине эффективная законодательная база, регулирующая трансфертное ценообразование. В Украине законодательство, регулирующее трансфертное ценообразование, действует с 2013 года. Как выяснили исследователи, наша нормативная документация в данной сфере вполне отвечает требованиям ООН и ОЭСР и развивается в целом в русле мировых тенденций.

То есть проблема не столько в несовершенстве законодательной базы, сколько в том, как она применяется на практике. Например,  когда Кабмин не вносит в черный список офшоров Швейцарию, Люксембург, Словакию — зарегистрированные там посредники активно используются для трансфертных операций с железной рудой. Или когда Государственная фискальная служба настойчиво закрывает глаза на занижение экспортных цен владельцами украинских ГОКов.

Впрочем, как справедливо отметил один из участников исследования Александр Антонюк, вряд ли стоит этому удивляться, учитывая, что 5 последних руководителей ГФС (и предшественников Службы) находятся под следствием. Такие себе “зицпредседатели Фунты”, которые традиционно с удовольствием концентрируются на борьбе с микронарушениями (“пиджаки”/”челноки”), оставляя при этом без контроля миллиардные потоки по вывозу национального богатства “клиентами” из Офиса крупнейших налогоплательщиков.

Если экстраполировать те схемы, которые были обнаружены в ходе “Перемещения прибыли при экспорте железной руды из Украины” на остальные две ключевые группы вывоза товаров из Украины — черные металлы и агропродукцию — выходит, что ежегодно крупный бизнес занижает официальную стоимость своего экспорта из страны примерно на 3,3 млрд долларов. Это не только потери для бюджета страны в размере 540 млн долларов, не уплаченных олигархами налогов, но и мощный канал оттока капитала из страны. Тех самых прямых инвестиций, которых нам не хватает для нормального (а не в рамках статистической погрешности) экономического роста.

Причем именно в случае с железной рудой эта ситуация достигает особого цинизма. Ведь здесь речь идет о разграблении недр страны, которые “являются объектами права собственности Украинского народа“. Мало того, что невозобновляемые ресурсы Украины без должной уплаты налогов (вследствие занижения цены экспорта) вывозятся из страны, так еще, что называется “на дорожку”, олигархи получают по этим операциям еще и возмещение НДС из госбюджета.

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  88. With the help of the U.S. Embassy, Linsey was able to travel back home to his wife, Angelina, and the pair’s two other sons, David, 21, and Ethan, 12 in the U.K. The family says they are now faced with the difficult task of repatriating their loved ones’ remains.

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